anthranilic acid production, UPR, ecoinvent 3.6, Undefined

ISIC4 categories:
C:Manufacturing/20:Manufacture of chemicals and chemical products/201:Manufacture of basic chemicals, fertilizers and nitrogen compounds, plastics and synthetic rubber in primary forms/2011:Manufacture of basic chemicals
RER - Europe
Reference year: 2010 - 2010

Location: RER - Europe
The process “anthranilic acid, at plant, RER” is modelled for the production of anthranilic acid from toluene in Europe. Raw materials are modelled with a stoechiometric calculation. Emissions are estimated. Energy consumptions, infrastructure and transports are calculated with standard values.
Anthranilic acid (C7H7NO2; CAS 118-92-3, 2-aminobenzoic acid) was first obtained from indigo by alkali fusion. The methyl derivative is found in essential oils. It is an off-white crystalline powder of sweetish taste, sublimable, and freely soluble in hot water. It has an amphoteric character as a weak acid and a weak base. Therefore, it is soluble in strong acids and bases. It is easily decarboxylated to form aniline. Anthranilic acid can be produced from phthalic anhydride via sodium phthalamate.
Oxidative decarboxylation (the Hofmann reaction) is carried out by the addition of sodium hypochlorite solution at 60 – 100 °C followed by acidification.

The product is purified with activated carbon and bisulfite. The overall yield is 88 %.

Another synthetic routes is nitration of toluene followed by a hydrogenation.
1. C7H8 + HNO3 → C7H7NO2 + H2O
2. C7H7NO2 + 2 HNO3 → C7H5NO4 + 2 H2O + 2 NO
3. C7H5NO4 + 3 H2 → C7H7NO2 + 2 H2O

Anthranilic acid is called vitamin L1; it enhances the milk production of cows. The major use of anthranilic acid is as an intermediate for dyes. As its occurrence suggests, it is an intermediate for indigo synthesis. Mordant Brown 40 and Vat Violet 13 are other derivatives. 4-Hydroxy-1-methyl-carbostyril is an important derivative used in making dyes and pigments. Its methyl and ethyl esters are used as fragrances for toiletries. In the pharmaceutical industry, it is used as an intermediate for tranquilizers and antiphlogistics.
In this study a three-step process is calculated. Inputs and outputs are calculated per step.

Frischknecht R., Jungbluth N., Althaus H.-J., Doka G., Dones R., Heck T., Hellweg S., Hischier R., Nemecek T., Rebitzer G. and Spielmann M. (2007) Overview and Methodology. Final report ecoinvent v2.0 No. 1. Swiss Centre for Life Cycle Inventories, Dübendorf, CH, retrieved from:

Gendorf (2000) Umwelterklärung 2000, Werk Gendorf. Werk Gendorf, Burgkirchen as pdf-File under:

Takao Maki/Kazuo Takeda: Benzoic Acid and Derivatives. Published online: 2000. In: Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Seventh Edition, 2004 Electronic Release (ed. Fiedler E., Grossmann G., Kersebohm D., Weiss G. and Witte C.). 7 th Electronic Release Edition. Wiley InterScience, New York, Online-Version under: DOI: 10.1002/14356007.a03_555

Undefined unit processes (UPRs) are the unlinked, multi-product activity datasets that form the basis for all of the system models available in the ecoinvent database. This is the way the datasets are obtained and entered into the database by the data providers. These activity datasets are useful for investigating the environmental impacts of a specific activity (gate-to-gate), without regard to its upstream or downstream impacts.


nitration of toluene

Process type
Supported nomenclature
ecoinvent 3.6
LCI modeling approach
Before modeling
Multifunctional modeling
Aggregation type
Data provider
Review status
For sale

ecoinvent EULA