cement production, limestone 6-20%, UPR, ecoinvent 3.6, Undefined

ISIC4 categories:
C:Manufacturing/23:Manufacture of other non-metallic mineral products/239:Manufacture of non-metallic mineral products n.e.c./2394:Manufacture of cement, lime and plaster
ZA - South Africa
Reference year: 2017 - 2017

Location: ZA - South Africa
The dataset describes the production of cement (CEM II/A-L)
CEM II/A-L is a blended cement that is made by partially replacing 6-20% of Portland cement with limestone.
Portland cement production involves the chemical transformation of raw materials: calcium oxides; silica; alumina and iron oxide into various types of cementitious products, by-products and wastes. The Portland cement manufacturing process consists of four main steps: (1) Quarrying of limestone and transportation of raw materials to the processing plant. (2) Preparation of “raw meal” for pyroprocessing (3) Pyroprocessing of raw materials to produce Portland cement clinker using the dry process. (4) Final grinding of the clinker together with inter-grinding with a small proportion of gypsum to produce Portland cement. Steps (1) to (4) are not considered in dataset.
Undefined unit processes (UPRs) are the unlinked, multi-product activity datasets that form the basis for all of the system models available in the ecoinvent database. This is the way the datasets are obtained and entered into the database by the data providers. These activity datasets are useful for investigating the environmental impacts of a specific activity (gate-to-gate), without regard to its upstream or downstream impacts.


In South Africa, all cement production is through dry kiln process. The clinker is ground in mills with gypsum (5%) and depending on the type of cement and technical standard (SAN 50197-1) with other materials such as blast furnace slag, fly ash, pozzolan and lime fillers to produce the Portland cement.

Process type
Supported nomenclature
ecoinvent 3.6
LCI modeling approach
Before modeling
Multifunctional modeling
Aggregation type
Data provider
Review status
For sale

ecoinvent EULA