electricity production, natural gas, conventional power plant, UPR, ecoinvent 3.6, Undefined

Categories:
ISIC4 categories:
D:Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply/35:Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply/351:Electric power generation, transmission and distribution/3510:Electric power generation, transmission and distribution
Location:
WECC, US only
Reference year: 1990 - 2015
Description

Location: WECC, US only - Western Electricity Coordinating Council, US part only
This dataset represents the production of high voltage electricity in a conventional steam boiler natural gas power plant without CHP (combined heat and power) in US - Western Electricity Coordinating Council in 2012.
For electricity production with natural gas, four different datasets relying to different power plant types exist:
- conventional power plant with / without CHP
- combined cycle power plant with / without CHP
The total amount of electricity produced with natural gas has therefore been allocated to these four types and is modelled in four different datasets (see parameter gross electricity production for information). The resulting shares in the US amount to 48% (conventional w/o CHP), 11% (conventional with CHP), 34% (combined cycle w/o CHP), 7% (combined cycle with CHP) and are used for split in the individual NERC regions.
At the moment, these different types are mainly modelled based on different electrical and thermal efficiency values.
The efficiency calculations are based on IEA/OECD statistics (fuel input vs. electricity/heat produced) and own calculation assumptions. Reducing factors such as contaminations of important plant parts, cooling conditions or part load have been taken into account. Even if efficiencies vary with different surrounding temperatures, temperature adjustments would be related to high uncertainties.
Water is used for wet cooling and as feed water in the steam circuit. In this dataset, 100% wet cooling and no once-through cooling is assumed.
EMISSIONS:
Different sources served as basis for assumption of average emissions. Where possible, the most recent sources were taken into account, whereas older sources were taken in order to determine the remaining data gaps. The emissions have been calculated for the former UCTE region* and have been taken over as such for all countries (uncertainty adjusted accordingly). See ecoinvent report 'Erdgas' given as main source for details (Tab. 11.15). In the following a short overview:
- Emissions of NOx, CO, CO2, SO2, particles, N2O and CH4 are mainly taken from CORINAIR 2001, EPA, and a variety of other data sources
- NOx emissions are a major challenge in natural gas power plants. With rising temperature, emissions also rise; band widths of NOx emissions in literature are correspondingly large. There are several methods to diminish these emissions.
- CO is a result of incomplete burning. For economic and technical reasons, plant combustion is optimized and CO emissions are low.
- CO2 and SO2 emissions are dependent on the composition of the used fuel. Due to the low sulfur content of the used natural gas, no desulfurization has to take place.
- Organic compound emissions are estimated on the basis of EPA 1998.
- Particles are assumed to be smaller than 2.5 micro-m
*former UCTE: Union for the Coordination of the Transmission of Electricity, since 2009 replaced by ENTSO-E European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity.
Sources:
- CORINAIR 2001. EMEP/CORINAIR 2001: Joint EMEP/CORINAIR Atmospheric Emission Inventory Guidebook, Third Edition. Copenhagen: European Environment Agency, 2001. http://reports.eea.eu.int/technical_report_2001_3/en.
- EPA 1998. US Environmental Protection Agency (1998). Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors, AP-42, Fifth Edition, Volume I: Chapter 1: External Combustion Sources, Natural Gas Combustion - Final Section - Supplement D , July 1998. CHIEF (Clearinghouse for Inventories and Emission Factors). Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. http://www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/ap42/.
- Rentz O., Karl U., Peter H. (2002). Ermittlung und Evaluierung von Emissionsfaktoren für Feuerungsanlagen in Deutschland für die Jahre 1995, 2000 und 2010. Deutsch- Französisches Institut für Umweltforschung, Uni Karsruhe. Endbericht. Im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes. Forschungsbericht 299 43 142. Umweltbundesamt. Berlin.
[This dataset is meant to replace the following datasets:]
Undefined unit processes (UPRs) are the unlinked, multi-product activity datasets that form the basis for all of the system models available in the ecoinvent database. This is the way the datasets are obtained and entered into the database by the data providers. These activity datasets are useful for investigating the environmental impacts of a specific activity (gate-to-gate), without regard to its upstream or downstream impacts.

Technology

Average of installed power plants. Only power plants with 100% natural gas firing have been considered for NOx, SO2, and CO2 emissions (eGRID 2006).

Process type
Unit
Supported nomenclature
ecoinvent 3.6
LCI modeling approach
Before modeling
Multifunctional modeling
NONE
Format
ECOSPOLD2
Aggregation type
NOT_APPLICABLE
Data provider
ecoinvent
Review status
External
Cost
For sale
License

ecoinvent EULA

Contact
support@ecoinvent.org