epoxy resin production, liquid, UPR, ecoinvent 3.6, Undefined

Categories:
ISIC4 categories:
C:Manufacturing/20:Manufacture of chemicals and chemical products/201:Manufacture of basic chemicals, fertilizers and nitrogen compounds, plastics and synthetic rubber in primary forms/2011:Manufacture of basic chemicals
Location:
GLO - Global
Reference year: 2015 - 2020
Description

Location: GLO - Global
Epoxy resins are pre-polymers or polymers. Epoxy resins are used in multiple industries. In particular they are used in the production of coatings. Other applications are in the production of adhesives, of electronics and for material reinforcement (Pham and Marks 2005).
The global demand in the year 2000 of epoxy resins was of 1.15 million metric tonnes. The US production of this product in 1994 was of approximately 433 thousand metric tonnes, while the Asia-Pacific area is responsible for 809 thousand metric tonnes (year 2001) (Pham and Marks 2005).
Reference(s):
Gendorf (2016) Umwelterklärung 2015, Werk Gendorf Industriepark, www.gendorf.de
Pham, H.Q. and Marks, M.J. 2005. Epoxy Resins. In Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Electronic Release, Vol.13, pp.155-244. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim.
Guichon Valves, n.d. Epoxy resins – Manufacturing process of Epoxy resins. Retrieved from: http://guichon-valves.com/faqs/epoxy-resins-manufacturing-process-of-ep…, accessed 13th February 2017
For more information on the model please refer to the dedicate ecoinvent report, access it in the Report section of ecoQuery (http://www.ecoinvent.org/login-databases.html)
Undefined unit processes (UPRs) are the unlinked, multi-product activity datasets that form the basis for all of the system models available in the ecoinvent database. This is the way the datasets are obtained and entered into the database by the data providers. These activity datasets are useful for investigating the environmental impacts of a specific activity (gate-to-gate), without regard to its upstream or downstream impacts.

Technology

Commercial epoxy resin can be produced by reacting bisphenol-A and epichlorohydrin in presence of a base catalyst (here represented by sodium hydroxide) (Guichon Valves n.d. and Pham and Marks 2005). Epoxy resins are in liquid form if n is from 0 to 1. When n is larger than 1 the resin in solid (Licare and Swanson, 2011). As the product here representes epoxy resin in liquid form, n is set to 1.
2C15H16O2 + 3C3H5ClO + 3NaOH -> C39H44O7 + 3Na+ + 3Cl- + 3H2O
Pham, H.Q. and Marks, M.J. 2005. Epoxy Resins. In Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Electronic Release, Vol.13, pp.155-244. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim.
Guichon Valves, n.d. Epoxy resins – Manufacturing process of Epoxy resins. Retrieved from: http://guichon-valves.com/faqs/epoxy-resins-manufacturing-process-of-ep…, accessed 13th February 2017
For more information on the model please refer to the dedicate ecoinvent report, access it in the Report section of ecoQuery (http://www.ecoinvent.org/login-databases.html)
The process is carried out in a reactor where a solution of sodium hydroxide is added (20 to 40% concentration). The product is brought to boiling temperature and a solvent is added. Solvents are not included in the inventory as it is assumed that solvents are closed-loop recycled. The unreacted epichlorohydrin is collected and recycled back into the system. The epoxy resin in then washed; this gives the final product in liquid form. Epoxy resin can also be produced in solid form. To do so, curing with, for example secondary amines, is necessary. Epoxy resins can have different characteristics, these depend on additional products that can be added to the liquid resin. The required characteristics depend on the final use of the product (Guichon Valves n.d.)
This inventory representing production of a particular chemical compound is at least partially based on a generic model on the production of chemicals. The data generated by this model have been improved by compound-specific data when available.
The model on production of chemicals is using specific industry or literature data wherever possible and more generic data on chemical production processes to fill compound-specific data gaps when necessary. The basic principles of the model have been published in literature (Hischier 2005, Establishing Life Cycle Inventories of Chemicals Based on Differing Data Availability). The model has been updated and extended with newly available data from the chemical industry.
In the model, unreacted fractions are treated in a waste treatment process, and emissions reported are after a waste treatment process that is included in the scope of this dataset. For volatile reactants, a small level of evaporation is assumed. Solvents and catalysts are mostly recycled in closed-loop systems within the scope of the dataset and reported flows are for losses from this system.
The main source of information for the values for heat, electricity, water (process and cooling), nitrogen, chemical factory is industry data from Gendorf. The values are a 5-year average of data (2011 - 2015) published by the Gendorf factory (Gendorf, 2016, Umwelterklärung, www.gendorf.de), (Gendorf, 2015, Umwelterklärung, www.gendorf.de), (Gendorf, 2014, Umwelterklärung, www.gendorf.de). The Gendorf factory is based in Germany, it produces a wide range of chemical substances. The factory produced 1657400 tonnes of chemical substances in the year 2015 (Gendorf, 2016, Umwelterklärung, www.gendorf.de) and 740000 tonnes of intermediate products.
Reference(s):
Hischier, R. (2005) Establishing Life Cycle Inventories of Chemicals Based on Differing Data Availability (9 pp). The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, Volume 10, Issue 1, pp 59–67. 10.1065/lca2004.10.181.7
Gendorf (2016) Umwelterklärung 2015, Werk Gendorf Industriepark, www.gendorf.de
Licari, J.J. and Swanson, D.W. 2011. Chemistry, Formulation, and Properties of Adhesives. In Adhesives Technology for Electronic Applications (Second Edition), 2011

Process type
Unit
Supported nomenclature
ecoinvent 3.6
LCI modeling approach
Before modeling
Multifunctional modeling
NONE
Format
ECOSPOLD2
Aggregation type
NOT_APPLICABLE
Data provider
ecoinvent
Review status
External
Cost
For sale
License

ecoinvent EULA

Contact
support@ecoinvent.org