heat production, air-water heat pump 10kW, UPR, ecoinvent 3.6, Undefined

ISIC4 categories:
D:Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply/35:Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply/353:Steam and air conditioning supply/3530:Steam and air conditioning supply
Europe without Switzerland
Reference year: 1998 - 2000

Location: Europe without Switzerland - Europe without Switzerland
This dataset represents the production of heat with an air-water heat pump for an average one family house in Europe. The dataset is based on a heat pump unit operated in Switzerland and extrapolated to European conditions. The air-water heat pump has a heat capacity of 10 kW and a Seasonal Performance Factor (SPF) of 2.8 (for the year 1998). For this dataset the infrastructure of a brine-water heat pump with 10 kW is used. Differences in infrastructure between the two types of heat pumps are considered by a scaling factor. Data for the estimation of SPF is based on a field study for Swiss heat pumps an on various literature. Life time is assumed to be 20 years. This dataset is based on the following reference values: for the average one maily house a heating requirement of 10 kW, a heat distribution system (low-temperature system) of 50/40°C and a heat supply of approximately 20.000 kWh with 2.000 operating hours were assumed. The system is assumed to be operated without an auxiliary heating system.
[The full documentation of this dataset was originally provided in the corresponding ecoinvent report from the Swiss Centre for Life Cycle Inventories, which is accessible for free to guests and users of ecoinvent version 2 (https://www.ecoinvent.org/login-databases.html). The dataset may subsequently have been subjected to central changes to the database, as described in the respective change report for each new release.]
Undefined unit processes (UPRs) are the unlinked, multi-product activity datasets that form the basis for all of the system models available in the ecoinvent database. This is the way the datasets are obtained and entered into the database by the data providers. These activity datasets are useful for investigating the environmental impacts of a specific activity (gate-to-gate), without regard to its upstream or downstream impacts.


Air-water heat pumps use ambient air as heat source. Here water represents the heating-circuit water. Most of the heat pumps in Switzerland are operated in a monovalent way, i.e. even at low outdoor temperatures the heat pump provides enough heat and an auxiliary system is not necessary if buildings are well insulated and a low temperature heating system is used. Air-water heat pumps are often used for retrofitting the heating system. When retrofitting heating systems in old buildings, special conditions have to be considered. Usually the heat distribution system in old buildings is operated with higher temperatures than in new buildings. For this purpose, particular retrofit heat pumps were developed. Seasonal Performance factors for retrofit heat pumps (air-water) and Swiss conditions are estimated to range between 2.5 and 2.7.

The Seasonal Performance Factor (SPF) is an important figure which indicates the ratio between heat amount at heat pump (respectively at storage if available) and specific demand for electricity of the heat pump (incl. all common auxiliaries).

New geothermal heat pumps in Europe achieve Seasonal Performance Factors of 4 or even higher. This is due to improved components and lower temperatures in the distribution system (below 35°C) based on improved heat insulation.

The Seasonal Performance Factors are estimated, based on a comprehensive field study for heat pump installations in Switzerland. For this dataset a SPF of 2,8 for air-water heat pumps operated in Switzerland in the year 1998 was assumed.

Zogg, Martin (2002b): The Swiss Retrofit Heat Pump Programme. Proceedings of the 7th International Energy Agency Conference on Heat Pumping Technologies, Beijing, China, May 19-22, 2002.
Erb M and Hubacher P: Field analysis of Swiss heat pump installations. IEA Heat Pump Centre Newsletter. Volume 19 - No. 1/2001. Available from: www.heatpumpcentre.org

Process type
Supported nomenclature
ecoinvent 3.6
LCI modeling approach
Before modeling
Multifunctional modeling
Aggregation type
Data provider
Review status
For sale

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