Milk production ; Manure treatment ; Non-integrated maize silage planting and dairy cow breeding system (non-IPBS)

Unit processes/End-of-life treatment/Material recycling
Reference year: 2016 -

In the process of manure treatment, the two modes of manure treatment are the same. Manure is made into organic fertilizer by compost, and urine sewage is put into the oxidation pond for harmless treatment to make liquid fertilizer. The main inputs in this process are electricity and diesel oil (Table 8). The discharge of this link includes the storage and discharge of manure and the energy consumption of organic fertilizer production. The greenhouse gas emission of urine polluted water in oxidation ponds is small [25] and can be ignored. Data users should take note of the following methodological advice: Account for the specific process of composting manure into organic fertilizer and the treatment of urine sewage in oxidation ponds when modeling the manure treatment process. Electricity and diesel oil are the main inputs in this process, which might need allocation when assessing environmental impacts. Emissions from manure storage and energy consumption for producing organic fertilizer, as well as the negligible greenhouse gas emission from the oxidation ponds, should be included in the life cycle assessment. The data set is calculated on the basis of total input and output per ton of Fat-and-Protein-Corrected Milk (FPCM) for a standard comparison across farms.


In the study area, there are mainly two milk production modes :IPBS and non-IPBS. In non-IPBS, the farms only have feeding links and manure treatment links, all the feed is purchased, and the manure pile fertilizer is made into organic fertilizer and sold to fruit and vegetable farmers. In IPBS, the silage corn planting process is increased in the farm, organic fertilizer and liquid fertilizer are mainly applied to the farm field, and the remaining part is sold to fruit farmers and vegetable farmers, etc. The differences between the two models are as follows :1) the sources of silage corn in the farm are different, resulting in different feed transportation distances and feed costs; 2) The use of organic fertilizer and liquid fertilizer is different, and the transportation distance is different. A total of 109 dairy farms were investigated in this study, and 83 valid questionnaires were obtained after excluding non-conforming questionnaires, among which 38 were non-IPBS and 45 were IPBS.

Process type
LCI modeling approach
Multifunctional modeling
Aggregation type
Data provider
Review status
Tiangong LCI Data Working Group