Polymer Hybrid Aluminum Electrolytic Capacitor (PHAEC) Production ; Polymer Hybrid Aluminum Electrolytic Capacitor (PHAEC) >2cm ; ; Primary Aluminum Ingot

Unit processes/Materials production/Metals and semimetals
CN - China
Reference year: 2022 -

聚合物杂化铝电解质电容器 (PHAEC) 生产阶段 ; 25V 150uf When using the LCA data for PHAEC production, consider the dataset's reference year (2016) and source (Gabi database version to ensure accuracy of the environmental impact assessments. Integrate the detailed Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) data only for applicable PHAEC manufacturing and take into account the additional forming solution used in the manufacturing process compared to LAECs. Pay special attention to the introduction of conductive polymers (PEDOT, PEDOT:PSS) and adjust the manufacturing LCI where cathode foil LCI data for PHAECs is unavailable, using similar processes from PAECs. For end-of-life considerations, use the analysis and calculations provided to evaluate environmental impact comprehensively.


The manufacturing stage of the AECs is divided into several sub-stages in this study based on the actual fabrication segmentation in the AEC industry. First, the high-purity aluminum ingots will be smelt, cast, rolled, and annealed into the aluminum foil with a thickness of about 10–100 μm. Then, anode foil and cathode foil for the AECs will be fabricated, respectively. The same manufacturing processes are applied toward anode foil in three types of AECs. The aluminum blank foil will be etched by the weak acids to increase the superficial area of the foil, and the electrochemical reaction can further form the dielectric (Al2O3). But cathode foil of three types of AECs varies in structure and manufacturing processes due to the differences in electrolytes. The cathode foil of LAECs is made by the etched process, while the cathode foil of PAEC is made by the carbon coating process after the etched process. In PHAECs, when liquid-state electrolyte and solid-state polymer are used simultaneously, the carbon-coated cathode aluminum foil of the PAECs is also replaced by the aluminum foil with TiO2 film to overcome the potential problems on capacitor cycling life. After obtaining the anode and cathode foil, the AECs can be manufactured, assembled, and packed. Besides, there are some differences in the AEC fabrication sub-stage. The specific processes of the three types of AECs are shown in Fig. 2. In detail, the differences in manufacturing processes among the three types of AECs are mainly due to the change of repair conditions of the capacitor dielectric (Al2O3 film) and the introduction of conductive polymer. On the one hand, PAECs and PHAECs cannot use the electrolyte to repair the dielectric layer in the aging process like LAECs, so an additional forming solution is required to perform forming process, which adds extra manufacturing steps. On the other hand, the conductive polymer needs to be effectively introduced into the middle of anode and cathode foils. The conductive polymer (PEDOT) in PAECs is formed by the polymerization reaction of EDOT and oxidizing agents in the capacitor manufacturing process, while the conductive polymer (PEDOT:PSS) in PHAEC is introduced into the capacitors by the dispersive solution. The collected inventory data of LAECs, PAECs, and PHAECs by the FU are summarized in Table 2. The details of the inventory data are available in Sheets 5–7 of Supporting Info B.

Process type
LCI modeling approach
Multifunctional modeling
Aggregation type
Data provider
Review status
Tiangong LCI Data Working Group