C12-13 Alcohol Ether Sulphates (petro based), 2 mole EO (No. 7 - Matrix, ELCD)
The data set covers all relevant process steps / technologies over the supply chain of the represented cradle to gate inventory with a very good overall data quality. It represents an production average based on the year 2011. The inventory is mainly based on industry data and is completed, where necessary, by secondary data. This data set is based on primary data from European adopted production processes, connected with regional precursor chains. The data set is based on primary production data for C12-13 E2S (petro) Sodium Salt production is from five different suppliers (Germany, France and Italy) representing the imported and produced C12-13 E2S (petro) Sodium Salt in Europe. Transportation was just considered for the main materials (covers about 90% of the mass of all inputs), other transportation was not considered.
Foreground system: Four steps are involved in the manufacture of AES: alcohol production, ethoxylation, sulphfation and neutralization. C12-13 E2S (petro) is manufactured by the reaction of the ethoxylate of C12-13 from petrochemical sources, with sulphfur trioxide in a falling film reactor. In these reactors, a thin film of material to be sulphated flows down the inside surface of vertical tubes through which dry air containing SO3 is passed. The reaction takes place at the gas-liquid interface with a degree of conversion in excess of 98%. The heat of reaction is removed by a cooling agent flowing around the outside of the tubes and may be subse-quently recovered. The resulting acid is neutralized, typically with sodium hydroxide, am-monia or ethanol amines. This study considers the production of the most common prod-uct the sodium salt.
Electricity: Electricity is modelled according to the individual country-specific situations. The country-specific modelling is achieved on multiple levels. Firstly, individual energy carrier specific power plants and plants for renewable energy sources are modelled according to the current national electricity grid mix. Modelling the electricity consumption mix includes transmission / distribution losses and the own use by energy producers (own consumption of power plants and "other" own consumption e.g. due to pumped storage hydro power etc.), as well as imported electricity. Secondly, the national emission and efficiency standards of the power plants are modelled as well as the share of electricity plants and combined heat and power plants (CHP). Thirdly, the country-specific energy carrier supply (share of imports and / or domestic supply) including the country-specific energy carrier properties (e.g. element and energy content) are accounted for. Fourthly, the exploration, mining/production, processing and transport processes of the energy carrier supply chains are modelled according to the specific situation of each electricity producing country. The different production and processing techniques (emissions and efficiencies) in the different energy producing countries are considered, e.g. different crude oil production technologies or different flaring rates at the oil platforms.
Thermal energy, process steam: The thermal energy and process steam supply is modelled according to the individual country-specific situation with regard to emission standards and considered energy carriers. The thermal energy and process steam are produced at heat plants. Efficiencies for thermal energy production are by definition 100% in relation to the corresponding energy carrier input. For process steam the efficiency ranges from 85%, 90% to 95%. The energy carriers used for the generation of thermal energy and process steam are modelled according to the specific import situation (see electricity above).
Transports: All relevant and known transport processes are included. Ocean-going and inland ship transport as well as rail, truck and pipeline transport of bulk commodities are considered.
Energy carriers: The energy carriers are modelled according to the specific supply situation (see electricity above).
Refinery products: Diesel fuel, gasoline, technical gases, fuel oils, lubricants and residues such as bitumen are modelled with a parameterised country-specific refinery model. The refinery model represents the current national standard in refining techniques (e.g. emission level, internal energy consumption, etc.) as well as the individual country-specific product output spectrum, which can be quite different from country to country. The supply of crude oil is modelled, again, according to the country-specific situation with the respective properties of the resources.