Refined coconut oil (incl. LUC, ELCD)
The data set covers all relevant process steps / technologies over the supply chain of the represented cradle to gate inventory with a good overall data quality. It represents an production average based on the year 2011. The inventory is mainly based on latest literature data and is completed, where necessary, by expert judgement.
25 years duration of plantation is assumed. Land use change is considered and mass allocation applied.
Transportation was just considered for the main materials (covers about 90% of the mass of all inputs), other transportation was not considered. The data is based on 1000 kg of product.
Geographical scope of this study was focused on an estimation of the global production mix, based on the two major coconut producers, the Philippines and Indonesia. The production of coconut in these two countries represents more than the 70% of the global production. Values of yield represent the national situation; values of fertiliser (based on nutrient balance) and diesel consumption represent the global situation; values of land use change emissions were taken from palm oil cultivation due to lack of information. Background data like energy profiles, diesel, electricity use etc. were adapted to the national boundaries. The global production mix consists to 73% of products from the Philippines to 27% of products from Indonesia.
Direct Land Use Change (dLUC) effects are considered and were accounted for follow-ing standards: /GHG protocol 2011/, /ILCD 2010/. Direct LUC, 20 years backwards (since 1990), was considered for above ground biomass, below ground biomass and soil organic matter. Indirect LUC is not considered. Emissions from conversion and cultivation on peat land are not of relevance. Values of land use change emissions were taken from the palm oil cultivation due to lack of information.
Allocation by mass was applied for: Coconut meat removal (kernel, shells), coconut oil mill (coconut oil, coconut meal), coconut oil refinery (refined product, fatty acid distillate).
Agricultural production was modelled in a comprehensive manner including the diesel consumption, fertilizers inputs and field emissions. The yield is a major cultivation parame-ter. Yield was modelled as 4.44 t coconuts / ha*a for the Philippines and 6.29 t coconuts / ha*a for Indonesia.
Coconut Oil mill, refinery and methyl ester stage: Coconut oil mill is modelled based on a single publication. Coconut oil refinery is modelled based on available data for palm oil refinery, as physical properties of the oils are similar. Coconut oil trans-esterification is modelled based on available data for palm oil trans-esterification, the yield for gaining the methyl esters is given as 98%.
Electricity: Electricity is modelled according to the individual country-specific situations. The country-specific modelling is achieved on multiple levels. Firstly, individual energy carrier specific power plants and plants for renewable energy sources are modelled according to the current national electricity grid mix. Modelling the electricity consumption mix includes transmission / distribution losses and the own use by energy producers (own consumption of power plants and "other" own consumption e.g. due to pumped storage hydro power etc.), as well as imported electricity. Secondly, the national emission and efficiency standards of the power plants are modelled as well as the share of electricity plants and combined heat and power plants (CHP). Thirdly, the country-specific energy carrier supply (share of imports and / or domestic supply) including the country-specific energy carrier properties (e.g. element and energy content) are accounted for. Fourthly, the exploration, mining/production, processing and transport processes of the energy carrier supply chains are modelled according to the specific situation of each electricity producing country. The different production and processing techniques (emissions and efficiencies) in the different energy producing countries are considered, e.g. different crude oil production technologies or different flaring rates at the oil platforms.
Thermal energy, process steam: The thermal energy and process steam supply is modelled according to the individual country-specific situation with regard to emission standards and considered energy carriers. The thermal energy and process steam are produced at heat plants. Efficiencies for thermal energy production are by definition 100% in relation to the corresponding energy carrier input. For process steam the efficiency ranges from 85%, 90% to 95%. The energy carriers used for the generation of thermal energy and process steam are modelled according to the specific import situation (see electricity above).
Transports: All relevant and known transport processes are included. Ocean-going and inland ship transport as well as rail, truck and pipeline transport of bulk commodities are considered.
Energy carriers: The energy carriers are modelled according to the specific supply situation (see electricity above).
Refinery products: Diesel fuel, gasoline, technical gases, fuel oils, lubricants and residues such as bitumen are modelled with a parameterised country-specific refinery model. The refinery model represents the current national standard in refining techniques (e.g. emission level, internal energy consumption, etc.) as well as the individual country-specific product output spectrum, which can be quite different from country to country. The supply of crude oil is modelled, again, according to the country-specific situation with the respective properties of the resources.