soybean production, monoculture system
This dataset represents the production of 1 kg of soybeans (fresh matter). The yield is 3000 kg/ha at a moisture content at storage of 11%.. In MS, 30.4% of soybean is produced in monoculture systems. . The inputs of seeds, mineral fertilisers and pesticides were considered.. Pesticide input from technosphere and emissions were considered for each active ingredient in particular with its regionalized amounts Folegatti et al. (2015), except for those not in Ecoinvent database, included as "pesticides, unspecified". Pesticide emissions estimation followed Nemecek and Schnetzer (2011), allocating emissions exclusively to soil.. Direct field emissions were included using the recommended Ecoinvent formulas and parameters most of the time, but with important regionalizations added (see each Exchange Comment field for details).. C binding was estimated as recommended by Nemecek and Schnetzer (2011), although IPCC doesn't consider C binding to biomass in annual crops. . Emissions of heavy metals to soil and surface water estimated from mineral fertilisers and liming as recommended by Canals (2003) and regionalized following Folegatti et al.(2015). . “Dry mass” and “C content” Exchange Properties for soybean product and seed were based on ecoinvent database". All other Exchange properties were assumed to be the same as in Ecoinvent Master Data, except for operations. . Diesel consumption from operations and its emissions were calculated and included in this dataset. . Transport of inputs is not included in this dataset because transport modelling depends on assumptions specific for each LCA study. . Bibliography is listed in the text box below.;Barakat, M. A. New trends in removing heavy metals from industrial wastewater. Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 2011, v. 4, p. 361-377.;Bordin, I.; Neves, C.S.V.J.; Medina, C. de C.; SANTOS, J.C.F.dos; Torres, E.; Urquiaga, S. "Matéria seca, carbono e nitrogênio de raízes de soja e milho em plantio direto e convencional.", 2008. Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira, Brasilia, v.43, n.12, p.1785-1792, dez. 2008.;Canals, 2003: Contributions to LCA Methodology for Agricultural Systems. Site-dependency and soil degradation impact assessment: http://www.tdx.cat/handle/10803/3155;CONAB, 2015: http://www.conab.gov.br/conteudos.php?a=1252&t=2;Folegatti et al., 2015: Contributions from experts here listed: Marília I. S. Folegatti Matsuura, Embrapa Meio Ambiente, email@example.com; Marco Antônio F. Gomes, Embrapa Meio Ambiente, firstname.lastname@example.org; César de Castro, Embrapa Soja, email@example.com; Marcelo H. Hirakuri, Embrapa Soja, firstname.lastname@example.org; Henrique Debiasi, Embrapa Soja, email@example.com; André May, Embrapa Milho e Sorgo, firstname.lastname@example.org; Alceu Richetti, Embrapa Agropecuária Oeste, email@example.com.;Maciel, V.G., et al., Life Cycle Inventory for the agricultural stages of soybean production in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, Journal of Cleaner Production (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.01.016;Nemecek and Schnetzer: Methods of assessment of direct field emissions for LCIs of agricultural production systems, Data v3.0 (2011): http://www.ecoinvent.org/fileadmin/talkpages/pages/01-01-crop-production/01_crop_production_-_direct_field_emissions___natural_resources_v1.1.pdf;Nemecek T. & Kagi T. (2007) Life Cycle Inventories of Swiss and European Agricultural Production Systems. Final report ecoinvent v2.0 nº 15a. Agroscope Reckenholz - Taenikon Research Station ART, Swiss Center for Life Cycle Inventories, Zurich and Dubendorf, CH, retrieved from: www.ecoinvent.ch.;Novais, R.F.; Smyth, T.J. Fósforo em solo e planta em condições tropicais. Viçosa: Universidade Federal de Viçosa, 1999. 399p;Sugawara: Comparação dos desempenhos ambientais do B5 etílico de soja e do óleo diesel, por meio da Avaliação do Ciclo de Vida (ACV). http://www.teses.usp.br/teses/disponiveis/3/3137/tde-16072013-122953/pt-br.php;Dataset authors:Marília I. S. Folegatti Matsuura, Juliana F. Picoli, Renan M. L. Novaes: Embrapa Meio AmbienteFernando Rodrigues Teixeira Dias, Embrapa PantanalMarcelo H. Hirakuri, Embrapa Soja, firstname.lastname@example.org; César de Castro, Embrapa Soja, email@example.com;Rafael Batista Zortea, firstname.lastname@example.orgAlceu Richetti, Embrapa Agropecuária Oeste, email@example.com. This activity begins with the drying of plant that remained in the field (that could be another crop of a crop system, grass or any other vegetation), followed by the soil correction (liming). This activity ends after harvest at the farm gate.
. It was assumed that no organic fertilisers are applied.. Authors decided to base this dataset on Ecoinvent not to add or change any Exchange or Parameter on Master Data. Two operations are known and usual but were not included: electrical operation for inoculating seeds (supposed irrelevant) and transportation of soybean produced inside the farm (changes a lot, depending on the harvest and storage system adopted).. Farms in Brazil can be quite large, so crop transportation may become representative for fuel and machinery use. Nevertheless, users must consider and include this operation when using this dataset, when suitable, as there are many different ways of crop transportation inside farms. Also, users must check if the default operations choosen from Ecoinvent Master Data represent adequate estimates for inputs, outputs and emissions. For instance, size of machinery usually influence its fuel use efficiency. Actually, for every resource from technosphere on this dataset, users must check if the dataset of the activity that produces the resource is suitable to their LCA study.