The data set represents the average country or region specific electricity supply for final consumers, including electricity own consumption, transmission/distribution losses and electricity imports from neighboring countries. The national energy carrier mixes used for electricity production, the power plant efficiency data, shares on direct to combined heat and power generation (CHP), as well as transmission/distribution losses and own consumption values are taken from official statistics (International Energy Agency, and US-EPA eGRID for USA regions) for the corresponding reference year. Detailed power plant models were used, which combine measured (e.g. NOx) with calculated emission values (e.g. heavy metals). The inventory is partly based on primary industry data, partly on secondary literature data.
The national or regional specific electricity consumption mix is provided by the conversion of the different energy carriers to electricity and imports from neighbouring countries, as illustrated in the pie chart "Electricity Mix".
The electricity is either produced in energy carrier specific power plants and/or combined heat and power plants (CHP). Also considered are the national and regional specific technology standards of the power plants in regard to efficiency, firing technology, flue-gas desulphurisation, NOx removal and de-dusting. The electricity provided by non-combustible renewable energy sources also considers the national or regional situation, such as solar radiation (photovoltaic), annual full load hours (wind power), and share of hydro power stations by type (run-of-river, storage and pumped storage).
The fossil power plant models combine emission data from literature with calculated values for non-measured emissions e.g. organics or heavy metals. For the emissions CO2, SO2, NOx, CO, CH4, N2O, NMVOC and particulate matter (PM) measured/calculated data are used, taken from national inventory reports, emission inventory data bases, utility companies and other sources. The calculation of other emissions within the models are based on energy carrier properties, transfer coefficients and power plant thermodynamics representing the applied flue gas treatment technologies and standards (flue gas desulphurisation, dust filter etc.). Combustion residues from solid fuels, such as gypsum, bottom ash or fly ash are assumed to be reused e.g. in construction work. Waste treatment for these substances is therefore not considered. Radioactive emissions from ashes are not considered in the coal power plant model.
The energy carrier supply considers the whole supply chain of the energy carrier from exploration, production, processing and transport of the fuels to the power plants. The supply chain is modelled in specific national / regional energy carrier consumption mixes (i.e. domestic production and imports), and considers national / regional average energy carrier properties (e.g. elemental composition and energy content).
The electricity grid mix includes imported electricity from neighbouring countries, transmission / distribution losses and the own use of electricity by energy producers (own consumption of power plants, and "other" own consumption e.g. due to pumped storage hydro power etc.). The logic of modelling the electricity consumption mix is represented in the flow diagram "Modelling of Electricity Consumption Mixes".
Electricity: Electricity is modelled according to the individual country-specific situations. The country-specific modelling is achieved on multiple levels. Firstly, individual energy carrier specific power plants and plants for renewable energy sources are modelled according to the current national electricity grid mix. Modelling the electricity consumption mix includes transmission / distribution losses and the own use by energy producers (own consumption of power plants and "other" own consumption e.g. due to pumped storage hydro power etc.), as well as imported electricity. Secondly, the national emission and efficiency standards of the power plants are modelled as well as the share of electricity plants and combined heat and power plants (CHP). Thirdly, the country-specific energy carrier supply (share of imports and / or domestic supply) including the country-specific energy carrier properties (e.g. element and energy content) are accounted for. Fourthly, the exploration, mining/production, processing and transport processes of the energy carrier supply chains are modelled according to the specific situation of each electricity producing country. The different production and processing techniques (emissions and efficiencies) in the different energy producing countries are considered, e.g. different crude oil production technologies or different flaring rates at the oil platforms.
Thermal energy, process steam: The thermal energy and process steam supply is modelled according to the individual country-specific situation with regard to emission standards and considered energy carriers. The thermal energy and process steam are produced at heat plants. Efficiencies for thermal energy production are by definition 100% in relation to the corresponding energy carrier input. For process steam the efficiency ranges from 85%, 90% to 95%. The energy carriers used for the generation of thermal energy and process steam are modelled according to the specific import situation (see electricity above).
Transports: All relevant and known transport processes are included. Ocean-going and inland ship transport as well as rail, truck and pipeline transport of bulk commodities are considered.
Energy carriers: The energy carriers are modelled according to the specific supply situation (see electricity above).
Refinery products: Diesel fuel, gasoline, technical gases, fuel oils, lubricants and residues such as bitumen are modelled with a parameterised country-specific refinery model. The refinery model represents the current national standard in refining techniques (e.g. emission level, internal energy consumption, etc.) as well as the individual country-specific product output spectrum, which can be quite different from country to country. The supply of crude oil is modelled, again, according to the country-specific situation with the respective properties of the resources.