manganese dioxide production, UPR, ecoinvent 3.6, Undefined
Location: GLO - Global
This dataset represents the production of 1 kg of manganese dioxide, with manganese sulfate as byproduct. Several types of synthetic manganese dioxide are produced commercially. The most important use of manganese dioxide is as depolarizer in dry-cell batteries, which use synthetic manganese dioxides that are electrochemically active. Other applications of manganese dioxides include the coloring of brick and ceramic, the use in welding rod manufacture, and the production of Mn chemicals and other chemical and metallurgical products (Reidies 2000).
In principle, synthetic manganese dioxide can be prepared either by a strictly chemical route (chemical manganese dioxide, CMD) or by electrochemical methods (electrolytic manganese dioxide, EMD) or by semisynthetic route from high-grade oxidic manganese ore. This dataset describes the semisynthetic route, since the data availability is much higher than in the case of the EMD technology.
This dataset is based on stoichiometric calculations, as well as data from a large chemical plant (Gendorf 2016).
Reidies, A. H. 2000. Manganese Compounds. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry.
Gendorf (2016) Umwelterklärung 2015, Werk Gendorf Industriepark, www.gendorf.de.
Undefined unit processes (UPRs) are the unlinked, multi-product activity datasets that form the basis for all of the system models available in the ecoinvent database. This is the way the datasets are obtained and entered into the database by the data providers. These activity datasets are useful for investigating the environmental impacts of a specific activity (gate-to-gate), without regard to its upstream or downstream impacts.
Chemical manganese dioxide (CDM) and Electrolytic manganese dioxide (EDM) are the two dominant production routes. The semisynthetic route presented in this activity is rather marginal, but still used technology for which more data are available than for the other technologies. It is still produced in France at the rate of several thousand tonnes per year under the names Ergogene and Philodyne. The amounts of raw material is calculated using stoichiometric relations (yield of 95%). 0.2% of the unreacted amount of manganese (III) oxide is assumed to be released as manganese (Mn) into air as pollution. The remaining unreacted amount is assumed to leave the process as a part of wastewater. The wastewater treatment efficiency is assumed to be 90%, thus 10% of manganese (Mn) is assumed to be released to environment (water). 0.2% of the unreacted amount of sulfuric acid is assumed to be released as emissions into air. The remaining unreacted amount is assumed leave the process as a part of wastewater. The wastewater treatment efficiency is assumed to be 90%, thus 10% of sulfur (S) is assumed to be released to environment (water).