electricity production, natural gas, conventional power plant, UPR, ecoinvent 3.6, Consequential
Reference product: electricity, high voltage [kWh]
Location: TH - Thailand
This dataset represents the production of high voltage electricity in a conventional steam boiler natural gas power plant without CHP (combined heat and power) in Thailand in 2012.
For electricity production with natural gas, four different datasets relying to different power plant types exist:
- conventional power plant with / without CHP
- combined cycle power plant with / without CHP
The total amount of electricity produced with natural gas has therefore been allocated to these four types and is modelled in four different datasets (see parameter gross electricity production for information). The resulting shares in this geography amount to 32% (conventional w/o CHP), 0% (conventional with CHP), 68% (combined cycle w/o CHP), 0% (combined cycle with CHP).
At the moment, these different types are mainly modelled based on different electrical and thermal efficiency values.
The efficiency calculations are based on IEA/OECD statistics (fuel input vs. electricity/heat produced) and own calculation assumptions. Reducing factors such as contaminations of important plant parts, cooling conditions or part load have been taken into account. Even if efficiencies vary with different surrounding temperatures, temperature adjustments would be related to high uncertainties.
Water is used for wet cooling and as feed water in the steam circuit. In this dataset, 100% wet cooling and no once-through cooling is assumed.
Different sources served as basis for assumption of average emissions. Where possible, the most recent sources were taken into account, whereas older sources were taken in order to determine the remaining data gaps. The emissions have been calculated for the former UCTE region* and have been taken over as such for all countries (uncertainty adjusted accordingly). See ecoinvent report 'Erdgas' given as main source for details (Tab. 11.15). In the following a short overview:
- Emissions of NOx, CO, CO2, SO2, particles, N2O and CH4 are mainly taken from CORINAIR 2001, EPA, and a variety of other data sources
- NOx emissions are a major challenge in natural gas power plants. With rising temperature, emissions also rise; band widths of NOx emissions in literature are correspondingly large. There are several methods to diminish these emissions.
- CO is a result of incomplete burning. For economic and technical reasons, plant combustion is optimized and CO emissions are low.
- CO2 and SO2 emissions are dependent on the composition of the used fuel. Due to the low sulfur content of the used natural gas, no desulfurization has to take place.
- Organic compound emissions are estimated on the basis of EPA 1998.
- Particles are assumed to be smaller than 2.5 micro-m
*former UCTE: Union for the Coordination of the Transmission of Electricity, since 2009 replaced by ENTSO-E European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity.
- CORINAIR 2001. EMEP/CORINAIR 2001: Joint EMEP/CORINAIR Atmospheric Emission Inventory Guidebook, Third Edition. Copenhagen: European Environment Agency, 2001. http://reports.eea.eu.int/technical_report_2001_3/en.
- EPA 1998. US Environmental Protection Agency (1998). Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors, AP-42, Fifth Edition, Volume I: Chapter 1: External Combustion Sources, Natural Gas Combustion - Final Section - Supplement D , July 1998. CHIEF (Clearinghouse for Inventories and Emission Factors). Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. http://www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/ap42/.
- Rentz O., Karl U., Peter H. (2002). Ermittlung und Evaluierung von Emissionsfaktoren für Feuerungsanlagen in Deutschland für die Jahre 1995, 2000 und 2010. Deutsch- Französisches Institut für Umweltforschung, Uni Karsruhe. Endbericht. Im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes. Forschungsbericht 299 43 142. Umweltbundesamt. Berlin.
[This dataset is meant to replace the following datasets:]
[This dataset has been generated using the system model “Substitution, consequential, long-term". A system model describes how activity datasets are linked to form product systems. This consequential system model uses substitution (also known as "system expansion") to substitute by-product outputs. It includes only activities to the extent that they are expected to change in the long-term as a consequence of small-scale changes in demand, following a consequential approach, taking into account both constrained markets and technology constraints.
Version 3 of the ecoinvent database offers three system models to choose from. For more information, please visit: https://www.ecoinvent.org/database/system-models-in-ecoinvent-3/system-models-in-ecoinvent-3.html)]
Conventional natural gas power plant of 100MWe. The plant is used for middle load with 5000 hours of operation at full capacity per year. The plant is assumed to operate 180000 hours during its lifetime.