manganese concentrate production, UPR, ecoinvent 3.6, Allocation, APOS
Reference product: manganese concentrate [kg]
Location: GLO - Global
This dataset describes the production of 1 kg of manganese concentrate, at plant, for a world-wide production average in 2003. The dataset is designed for the use of manganese ore as intermediary product in the production of ferromanganese and manganese metal. For the use of this module in the battery manufacture, the data quality may not be sufficient.
[The full documentation of this dataset was originally provided in the corresponding ecoinvent report from the Swiss Centre for Life Cycle Inventories, which is accessible for free to guests and users of ecoinvent version 2 (https://www.ecoinvent.org/login-databases.html). The dataset may subsequently have been subjected to central changes to the database, as described in the respective change report for each new release.]
[This dataset has been generated using the system model “Allocation at the point of substitution" (APOS). A system model describes how activity datasets are linked to form product systems. The APOS model subdivides multi-output activities by physical properties, economic, mass or other properties allocation. By-products of treatment processes are considered to be part of the waste-producing system and are allocated together. Markets in this model include all activities in proportion to their current production volume.
Version 3 of the ecoinvent database offers three system models to choose from. For more information, please visit: https://www.ecoinvent.org/database/system-models-in-ecoinvent-3/system-models-in-ecoinvent-3.html)]
Mining is done 70% open pit and 30% underground, followed by a beneficiation of the ore trough classification. Overburden and tailings are non-sulphidic , they are disposed near the mining site.
Manganese ores are usually mined in open pits. It's been estimated a share of 70% surface mining activities in the mine production in 1994. The deposits are of various nature and therefore the average manganese concentration differs greatly, from Asia with 24%wt to Australia with 48.5%wt and a world-wide average of 35.7%wt manganese content in the ore.
Emissions and waste: The major emissions are due to mineral born pollutants in the effluents. Open cut mining generates large quantities of dust, which contains elevated contents of metals. Rain percolate through overburden and accounts to metal emissions to groundwater. Overburden is deposed close to the mine.
After mining, the ore is first crushed in several stages with jaw and / or cone crushers, and then subsequently ground with rod and or ball mills and finally screened for classification. In a second step the classified material it is subjected to gravity concentration to separate the metal-bearing particles from the unwanted minerals. For this drum separators and de-watering screens for lumps are used and cone separators and a high-gradient magnetic separator for fine material. No flotation is done. Recovery of Manganese vary in a range from 65% to 75%.
Emissions and waste: Ore handling and processing produce large amounts of dust, containing PM10 and several metals from the ore itself. Tailings are deposed as piles and in ponds. Since the tailings are not sulphidic, no acid rock drainage (ARD) occurs.
Adelhardt W. and Saiger H. (1999) Stoffmengenflüsse und Energiebedarf bei der Gewinnung ausgewählter mineralischer Rohstoffe; Teilstudie Mangan. In: Geo-logisches Jahrbuch, Vol. Sonderhefte SH 8. Bundesanstalt für Geowissen-schaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover. ISBN 3-510-95830-6.