electricity production, natural gas, conventional power plant, UPR, ecoinvent 3.6, Allocation, APOS
Reference product: electricity, high voltage [kWh]
Location: HU - Hungary
This dataset represents the production of high voltage electricity in a conventional steam boiler natural gas power plant without CHP (combined heat and power) in Hungary in 2012.
For electricity production with natural gas, four different datasets relying to different power plant types exist:
- conventional power plant with / without CHP
- combined cycle power plant with / without CHP
The total amount of electricity produced with natural gas has therefore been allocated to these four types and is modelled in four different datasets (see parameter gross electricity production for information). The resulting shares in this geography amount to 16% (conventional w/o CHP), 54% (conventional with CHP), 25% (combined cycle w/o CHP), 5% (combined cycle with CHP).
At the moment, these different types are mainly modelled based on different electrical and thermal efficiency values.
The efficiency calculations are based on IEA/OECD statistics (fuel input vs. electricity/heat produced) and own calculation assumptions. Reducing factors such as contaminations of important plant parts, cooling conditions or part load have been taken into account. Even if efficiencies vary with different surrounding temperatures, temperature adjustments would be related to high uncertainties.
Water is used for wet cooling and as feed water in the steam circuit. In this dataset, 100% wet cooling and no once-through cooling is assumed.
Different sources served as basis for assumption of average emissions. Where possible, the most recent sources were taken into account, whereas older sources were taken in order to determine the remaining data gaps. The emissions have been calculated for the former UCTE region* and have been taken over as such for all countries (uncertainty adjusted accordingly). See ecoinvent report 'Erdgas' given as main source for details (Tab. 11.15). In the following a short overview:
- Emissions of NOx, CO, CO2, SO2, particles, N2O and CH4 are mainly taken from CORINAIR 2001, EPA, and a variety of other data sources
- NOx emissions are a major challenge in natural gas power plants. With rising temperature, emissions also rise; band widths of NOx emissions in literature are correspondingly large. There are several methods to diminish these emissions.
- CO is a result of incomplete burning. For economic and technical reasons, plant combustion is optimized and CO emissions are low.
- CO2 and SO2 emissions are dependent on the composition of the used fuel. Due to the low sulfur content of the used natural gas, no desulfurization has to take place.
- Organic compound emissions are estimated on the basis of EPA 1998.
- Particles are assumed to be smaller than 2.5 micro-m
*former UCTE: Union for the Coordination of the Transmission of Electricity, since 2009 replaced by ENTSO-E European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity.
- CORINAIR 2001. EMEP/CORINAIR 2001: Joint EMEP/CORINAIR Atmospheric Emission Inventory Guidebook, Third Edition. Copenhagen: European Environment Agency, 2001. http://reports.eea.eu.int/technical_report_2001_3/en.
- EPA 1998. US Environmental Protection Agency (1998). Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors, AP-42, Fifth Edition, Volume I: Chapter 1: External Combustion Sources, Natural Gas Combustion - Final Section - Supplement D , July 1998. CHIEF (Clearinghouse for Inventories and Emission Factors). Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. http://www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/ap42/.
- Rentz O., Karl U., Peter H. (2002). Ermittlung und Evaluierung von Emissionsfaktoren für Feuerungsanlagen in Deutschland für die Jahre 1995, 2000 und 2010. Deutsch- Französisches Institut für Umweltforschung, Uni Karsruhe. Endbericht. Im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes. Forschungsbericht 299 43 142. Umweltbundesamt. Berlin.
[This dataset is meant to replace the following datasets:]
[This dataset has been generated using the system model “Allocation at the point of substitution" (APOS). A system model describes how activity datasets are linked to form product systems. The APOS model subdivides multi-output activities by physical properties, economic, mass or other properties allocation. By-products of treatment processes are considered to be part of the waste-producing system and are allocated together. Markets in this model include all activities in proportion to their current production volume.
Version 3 of the ecoinvent database offers three system models to choose from. For more information, please visit: https://www.ecoinvent.org/database/system-models-in-ecoinvent-3/system-models-in-ecoinvent-3.html)]
Average of installed power plants.