Reference product: electricity, high voltage [kWh]
Location: ES - Spain
This dataset represents the production of high voltage electricity in an average hard coal power plant in Spain in 2012. 'Hard coal' includes anthracite, coking coal and other bituminous coal according to the definition of the IEA electricity information 2014.
All exchanges in this dataset except for emissions of SO2, NOx and particles are production-weighted averages of the figures in the datasets in ecoinvent version two, which are valid for the following 14 countries: AT, BE, ES, FR, IT, NL, PT, DE, CZ, HR, PL, SK, CN, US. The exception values are production-weighted averages of version 2 countries and the new countries in version 3 (AU, CA, CL, ID, IN, KR, MX, MY, PE, RU, TH, TR, TW, TZ, UA, ZA)
Comments on the inventory data of emissions:
- For the assessment of main characteristics (sulphur and ash content of coal, efficiency of the plant) and CO2 a bottom-up approach has been used. It consists in the collection of information about single plants.
- The size distribution of particle emissions has been derived from German data.
- Halogene emissions have been estimated on the basis of the content of the species in the country-specific coal input mix, assuming average retention rates.
- For CO and particle emissions average values for the former UCTE are included (Union for the Coordination of the Transmission of Electricity, since 2009 replaced by ENTSO-E European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity).
- The country specific emission depend on the share of DeNOx.
- Emissions of trace elements were calculated by means of a formula (CORINAIR) using the ash content in the country-specific coal input mix and average transfer coefficients for coal power plants, taking into account the share of DeSOx installed.
- Emission of uranium and thorium radioactive isotopes were assumed proportional to the corresponding element emitted with particles; the other non-gaseous radioactive isotopes of the uranium and thorium decay chain were assumed proportional to the emitted U-238 or Th-232.
- The emission of gaseous radon and K-40 are taken from the literature.
IEA. 2014. Electricity Information 2014. ISBN 978-92-64-21692-1. International Energy Agency (IEA), Paris Cedex (FR)
European Environment Agency (1991) CORINAIR Inventory; VOC's Default Emission Factors
[This dataset has been generated using the system model "Allocation, cut-off by classification". A system model describes how activity datasets are linked to form product systems. The allocation cut-off system model subdivides multi-product activities by allocation, based on a physical properties, economic, mass or other properties. By-products of waste treatment processes are cut-off, as are all by-products classified as recyclable. Markets in this model include all activities in proportion to their current production volume.
Version 3 of the ecoinvent database offers three system models to choose from. For more information, please visit: https://www.ecoinvent.org/database/system-models-in-ecoinvent-3/system-models-in-ecoinvent-3.html)]
Hard coal power plant input is a market mix of 100MWe power plants (representing all power plants with a capacity <250MWe and 7% of installed capacity) and 500MWe power plants (representing all power plants with a capacity >250MWe and 93% of installed capacity). Please note that in contrast to ecoinvent v2, the two power plant types do not exist anymore as single datasets. Along with (Röder et al. 2004), lifetime of these power plants is assumed to be 150’000 full load hours. Whereas European hard coal power plants are assumed to be operated in mid-load mode with 4000 full load hours per year (corresponding to a lifetime of 37.5 years) (Röder et al. 2004), a capacity factor (average US) of 66% is documented (eGRID 2006), corresponding to about 5800 full load hours per year, or a lifetime of about 26 years.
Average installed technology.
- Share of installed capacity with desulfurisation 2% (rough estimation based on sulfur mass balance
- Average efficiency of desulfurisation installations: 92% (rough estimation based on Dones et al. 27
- Share of installed capacity with denitrification (primary and/or secondary installations): 73% (figure based on IEA 212 )
- Average efficiency of denitrification installations: 8% (estimation based on Dones et al. 27, p.128. Valid for selective catalytic reaction systems)
- Share of installed capacity with particle filters: 98% (figure based on IEA 212 )
- Average efficiency of particle filters: 98% (figure based on IEA 212 )
- IEA 2012. Coal Power Database. International Energy Agency Clean Coal Centre, London
- IEA/OECD. 2010. Electricity Information 2010. International Energy Agency (IEA), Paris Cedex (FR). Part IV. Detailed OECD Electricity And Heat Data.
- Dones, R., Bauer, C., Röder, A. (2007) Kohle. In: Dones, R. (Ed.) et al., Sachbilanzen von Energiesystemen: Grundlagen für den ökologischen Vergleich von Energiesystemen und den Einbezug von Energiesystemen in Ökobilanzen für die Schweiz. Final report ecoinvent No.