toluene oxidation, UPR, ecoinvent 3.6, Undefined

ISIC4 categories:
C:Manufacturing/20:Manufacture of chemicals and chemical products/201:Manufacture of basic chemicals, fertilizers and nitrogen compounds, plastics and synthetic rubber in primary forms/2011:Manufacture of basic chemicals
RER - Europe
Reference year: 2010 - 2020

Location: RER - Europe
This dataset represents the production of benzoic acid by oxidation of toluene. Benzoic acid is a white crystalline solid. The majority of benzoic acid is used to produce phenol. Benzoic acid is also used to produce sodium and potassium benzoate which are consumed in the food and beverage industry. Other major applications include benzoate plasticizers, alkyd resins and benzyl chloride.
This dataset is based on estimations using stoichiometry and expert judgement, as well as data from a large chemical plant (Gendorf 2016).
Frischknecht R., Jungbluth N., Althaus H.-J., Doka G., Dones R., Heck T., Hellweg S., Hischier R., Nemecek T., Rebitzer G. and Spielmann M. (2007) Overview and Methodology. Final report ecoinvent v2.0 No. 1. Swiss Centre for Life Cycle Inventories, Dübendorf, CH, retrieved from:
CAMEO Chemicals. Chemical Datasheet, Benzoic acid, (last accessed, 2017-01-06).
Gendorf (2016) Umwelterklärung 2015, Werk Gendorf Industriepark,
Undefined unit processes (UPRs) are the unlinked, multi-product activity datasets that form the basis for all of the system models available in the ecoinvent database. This is the way the datasets are obtained and entered into the database by the data providers. These activity datasets are useful for investigating the environmental impacts of a specific activity (gate-to-gate), without regard to its upstream or downstream impacts.


Oxidation of toluene is the most important method for the manufacture of benzoic acid:
C7H8 + O2 → C7H6O2 + H2
Benzoic acid (C7H6O2; CAS 65-85-0, benzenecarboxlic acid) forms white monoclinic crystals that begin to sublime at about 100 °C. It is volatile in steam and forms azeotropes with biphenyl, butyl benzoate, catechol, diphenyl ether, diphenylmethane, and naphthalene. At 89.7 °C, a mixture of excess benzoic acid and water forms two stable liquid phases. The water content of the benzoic acid phase is 26.5 wt %. The two phases become homogeneous at 117.2 °C. The mixture then contains 32.34 % benzoic acid and 67.66 % water (Maki T. and Takeda K., 2000).
Takao Maki and Kazuo Takeda: Benzoic Acid and Derivatives. Published online: 2000. In: Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Seventh Edition, 2004 Electronic Release (ed. Fiedler E., Grossmann G., Kersebohm D., Weiss G. and Witte C.). 7 th Electronic Release Edition. Wiley InterScience, New York, Online-Version under: DOI: 10.1002/14356007.a03_555

Process type
Supported nomenclature
ecoinvent 3.6
LCI modeling approach
Before modeling
Multifunctional modeling
Aggregation type
Data provider
Review status
For sale

ecoinvent EULA