treatment of used toner module, laser printer, black/white, recycling, UPR, ecoinvent 3.6, Undefined

ISIC4 categories:
C:Manufacturing/28:Manufacture of machinery and equipment n.e.c./281:Manufacture of general-purpose machinery/2817:Manufacture of office machinery and equipment (except computers and peripheral equipment)
RER - Europe
Reference year: 2002 - 2005

Location: RER - Europe
This dataset relates to the mass of black toner actually printed on paper. It assumes two use cycles, i.e. one as a OEM cartridge and a subsequent as remanufactured virgin core. It is to be used to reflect black toner use in both monochrome (b/w) and colour (black pigment) laser printer systems for cartridges with a capacity of 5000 sheets and a weight of env. 1 kg including toner.
[This dataset is meant to replace the following datasets:
- treatment of used toner cartridge, black/white, remanufacturing for laser printer, including 50% new toner modules, RER, 2002 - 2005 (59c13994-b53c-42e4-a699-39f0347ea137)]
Undefined unit processes (UPRs) are the unlinked, multi-product activity datasets that form the basis for all of the system models available in the ecoinvent database. This is the way the datasets are obtained and entered into the database by the data providers. These activity datasets are useful for investigating the environmental impacts of a specific activity (gate-to-gate), without regard to its upstream or downstream impacts.


Replacement of spare parts, assembly of semifinished components. After fulfilling the first use cycle toner cartridges are returned to remanufacturing sites, where they are refilled and refurbished. Some of the empty cartridges (“empties” or “core”) are sorted out and disposed. While this can be perceived as average failure rate, the cartridge’s life cycle also can be thought of as a number of subsequent refurbishment cycles. Cartridges are remanufactured by specialised companies. They reuse the cores of original equip-ment manufacturers (OEMs) and refurbish it with replacement parts from different suppliers and refill it with toner.
The first step in any remanufacturing process is obtaining the empty cartridge (“core”). At least 70 percent of first remanufacturing cycle cores is abandoned. Next, the remanufacturer must disassemble the cartridge. Disassembling a HP 96A is a multistep process that requires the removal of sensitive components such as the OPC drum. After completing the desired degree of disassembly, components can be checked to determine their suitability for reuse. The com-ponent performance in a second (and additional) cycle is again impaired and the failure rate rises. Not all of the toner powder is fixed on the paper, the rest is collected returned to remanufacturing together with the cartridge where it is prepared, sieved and reused.

Process type
Supported nomenclature
ecoinvent 3.6
LCI modeling approach
Before modeling
Multifunctional modeling
Aggregation type
Data provider
Review status
For sale

ecoinvent EULA